Cluster Front Line Demonstrations (CFLDs) is a form of adaptive research on the latest notified/released varieties during last 10 years/ technologies which are demonstrated by ICAR/SAUs system on the selected farmer’s field. CFLDs are a unique approach to provide a direct interface between researcher and farmers as the scientists are directly involved in planning, execution and monitoring of the demonstrations for the technologies developed by them and get direct feedback from the farmers.

It is noted that India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses. Pulses are rich source of protein and occupy a unique place in the world of agriculture by its high protein content, which is almost double than that of cereal. India though is the biggest producer and largest consumer of pulses, substantial expenditure is incurred from the state exchequer to import pulses every year to meet the requirement. The Government of India is striving to increase the pulses production schemes; ICAR has taken initiatives in from of a collaborative project “Cluster Frontline Demonstration on Pulses (CFLD)” since 2015 under NFSM with financial assistant of Department of Agriculture, Co-operation & Farmers Welfare, to augment pulses production and productivity.


In front line demonstrations (FLD), the subject matter scientists provide technological inputs to extension scientists to organize the demonstrations. Thus, FLDs provide an opportunity to researchers and extension personnel for understanding the farmer’s resources and requirement to fine tune and/or modify the technologies for easy adaptability at farmers’ fields. The objectives of CFLD were mentioned are-

  • To demonstrate improved Crop Production Technologies of Pulses on the farmers’ fields
  • To popularize the newly notified and improved varieties/technologies for varietal diversification and efficient management of resources
  • To bring synergy among planers, researchers, farmers and industry for parable interface through seminars/symposium on emerging themes of importance in the field of pulses production for deciding strategies for development of pulses


Salient features of CFLD Pulses

Frontline Demonstration is a form of applied research through ICAR/SAUs system on latest notified/released varieties along with full package of practices on selected farmers’ fields with a view to demonstrate the potentiality of the technologies to (a) participating farmers (b) neighbouring farmers and other agencies; (c) to analyze the production (d) performance of the technologies for scientific feedback.

Major technological interventions under CFLD on Pulses

  • Seed treatment: Seed treatment refers to the application of fungicide, insecticide, or a combination of both, to seeds so as to disinfect and disinfect them from seed-borne or soil-borne pathogenic organisms and storage insects. It also refers to the subjecting of seeds to solar energy exposure, immersion in conditioned water, etc.  In CFLD Pulses, bio fertilizers used for seed inoculation are Rhizobium, phosphorus soluble bacteria, Trichoderma viridi whereas chemicals like  Bavistin, Carbendazime, Chloropyriphos, Thiram etc. are used for treating seeds .
  • Line sowing: It is the dropping of seeds into the soil with the help of implement such seed drill, behind the plough and then the seeds are covered by wooden plank or harrow to have contact between seed & soil. This method helps to maintain the spacing between plants which helps in plant growth. Line spacing maintained for pigeon pea is 60-90cmX30-60cm and 25-30cmX10cm other pulses like green gram, black gram, lentil and field pea in the  demonstration 
  • Weed management: Pulse crop farmers face unique challenges in terms of managing weed populations in their crop. Application of herbicides Pendimethalin and Imazethapyr mostly used in the demonstration.
  • Integrated Nutrient Management (INM): It refers to the maintenance of soil fertility and of plant nutrient supply at an optimum level for sustaining the desired productivity through optimization of the benefits from all possible sources of organic, inorganic and biological components in an integrated manner. INM includes application of N, P, K along with micronutrients like Sulphur, Zinc and bio-fertilizers like Phosphorous Solubilizing Bacteria , Phosphorous Mobilizing Bacteria etc.In CFLD Pulses, this approach was followed with application of soil test based fertiliser, soil and foliar application of micro nutrients like Boron and Zinc and incorporation of different bio fertiliser in soil.


Integrated pest management (IPM): It is also known as integrated pest control is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the economic injury level.  Use of prophylactic and need based plant protective chemicals are applied for demonstration.  Chemical insecticide and fungicide applied for pulses demonstration are Carbedazim, Manozeb, Prophenophos, Imidachliripid, Indoxacarb, Emamectin, Thiomethoxam, Blitox etc. Application of organic pesticide was also used in few demonstrations of pulses.  Installation of pheromone traps and lures were also done. Biological control of pod borer by release of Trichogramma chilonis were used in case of green gram.

Salient achievements of the project: